There are a variety of microphones and accessories that are used for the different situations that may be recorded.
The shotgun mic is designed to capture audio from a distance.
A windsock can be placed over the mic to help reduce ambient noise such as the wind.
The microphone can also be placed on a boom to allow you to capture audio from your subject without you or the microphone being in the frame.
You can place the boom on a stand and then extend it out to place the microphone above your subject’s head.
Another type of microphone is the lavalier microphone, which is a small, wired microphone that can be clipped to your subjects clothing.
Lavalier microphones are typically connected to a transmitter, which is also worn by the subject, that sends the audio to a receiver.
When out in the field, microphones are typically connected to a field mixer, a receiver that blends everything together and then sends the audio to the camera.
Once back in the studio, audio mixes are created using a computer program by taking video files that have been edited and blending the audio, music, and sound effects so that the viewer can hear everything they are supposed to.